Browse Exhibits (62 total)
F.B. Eyes Digital Archive: FBI Files on African American Authors and Literary Institutions Obtained Through the U.S. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
Few institutions seem more opposed than African American literature and J. Edgar Hoover's white-bread Federal Bureau of Investigation. But behind the scenes the FBI's hostility to black protest was energized by fear of and respect for black writing. Drawing on thousands of pages of recently released FBI files, William J. Maxwell’s book F.B. Eyes: How J. Edgar Hoover’s Ghostreaders Framed African American Literature exposes the Bureau's intimate policing of five decades of African American poems, plays, essays, and novels. Starting in 1919, year one of Harlem's renaissance and Hoover's career at the Bureau, secretive FBI "ghostreaders" monitored the latest developments in African American letters. By the time of Hoover's death in 1972, these ghostreaders knew enough to simulate a sinister black literature of their own. The official aim behind the Bureau's close reading was to anticipate political unrest. Yet, as F.B. Eyes reveals, FBI surveillance came to influence the creation and public reception of African American literature in the heart of the twentieth century.
The F.B. Eyes Digital Archive makes available for the first time a collection of 51 FBI files on prominent African American authors and literary institutions, many of them unearthed through William J. Maxwell's Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests. Now part of the public domain as unrestricted U.S. government documents, these once-secret files are arranged on this site as they were at FBI national headquarters, under the names of individual authors and institutions.
The collected files of the authors alone comprise 14,289 pages, or the rough equivalent of forty-seven substantial PhD theses. If this seems a strange comparison, it should be noted that the average length of the 46 author files reaches above 300 pages. FBI ghostreaders genuinely rivaled the productivity, if not always the insight, of their academic peers. The Bureau’s copious files addressing twentieth-century African American writing are documents of troubling state surveillance and sometimes-illegal counterintelligence. But they are also recognizably literary-critical documents, analytical encounters that cannot always resist the pleasures of the enemy text.
More detailed information on the contents of the files and on the means used to collect them can be found in the introduction to F.B. Eyes: http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i10321.pdf.
William J. Maxwell is a professor of English and African and African American Studies at Washington University in St. Louis, where he teaches modern American and African American literature. He is the author of New Negro, Old Left: African American Writing and Communism between the Wars and the editor of Claude McKay's Complete Poems. He can be reached at email@example.com.
F.B. Eyes: How J. Edgar Hoover's Ghostreaders Framed African American Literature is published and distributed by Princeton University Press: http://press.princeton.edu/titles/10321.html.
Expressionism, reliant as it is upon the subjective emotional approach of the artist, has a powerful ability to reflect the circumstances of the world around the artist. Portraiture in particular shows the emotional response of both the subject and artist to their particular personal and historical contexts. As a movement, Expressionism had reached its peak in influence and popularity during the pre-World War I and interwar years, and many of its main practitioners were in the later stages of their careers by the time Hitler rose to power in Germany in 1933. In the late 1930s, many German Expressionists, such as Max Beckmann, were forced to flee Germany due to Nazi persecution. Expressionists working elsewhere in Europe, like Georges Rouault and Paul Klee, were also overwhelmed by the specter of war and Fascism that haunted Europe during that time period. This exhibition will explore the portraiture of these three artists—Beckmann, Rouault, and Klee—on the cusp of the breakout of World War II.
Professionally, these artists had achieved fame and success for their contributions to Expressionism long before World War II. But the rise of Nazism jeopardized their place in European culture and society and threatened the forms of expression that they had worked with throughout their careers. Though always dealing with fraught, subjective, and deeply personal subject matter, the prospect of devastating war and the muzzling effect of totalitarianism permeated both the subject matter and the emotional underpinnings of the artists’ work. Though they had lived through and been deeply affected by the horrors of World War I, the rise of Nazism threatened their style of expression in new and terrifying ways. They used techniques they had been using for years but now applied them to much darker themes and experiences.
While they have common themes like numbness, isolation, darkness, and dread, the works are also a study in contrasts. Klee would die in 1940, and his The Man of Confusion shows a fearful, isolated figure floating in undefined ether, reflective of the emotions of a dying man in uncertain, frightening times. Rouault’s Chinois was part of a series of works called “Miserere et Guerre” (“Misery and War”) that dealt with the emotions of the individual in suffering and strife, heavily influenced by the artist’s Christian faith. The last work is Beckmann’s Acrobat on Trapeze,which he painted while in exile in Amsterdam in 1940 after fleeing Nazi persecution and the label of “degenerate.” The figure of the acrobat, long a source of inspiration for Beckmann’s work, is represented as a reclusive, shadowy figure who is entirely removed emotionally from the adoring crowds below—a reflection of Beckmann’s state of mind in exile. Together, these paintings show the attempt of these Expressionists to communicate the melancholy experience of the individual in a continent on the precipice of immense human disaster, on the grand scale and for the individual.
The history of Washington Park Cemetery reveals within its microcosm of events, a complicated tangle of social injustice, racial politics, and imbalance of power.
Washington Park Cemetery, located near Lambert St Louis Airport in the city of Berkley, MO was established in 1920 as a burial ground for African Americans at a time when rigid segregation was common practice. For nearly 70 years, it was the largest black cemetery in the region, the final resting place for many prominent African Americans as well as lesser well-known citizens. The cemetery’s long and tragic history reveals a complicated tangle of social injustice, racial politics, imbalance of power, and dismal neglect.
On three notable occasions, the peace of the grounds was disturbed: first in the late 1950’s with the construction of Interstate 70, in 1972 when Lambert Airport acquired nine acres for its use, and again in 1992 when bodies were disinterred to make way for the Airport runway expansion and MetroLink’s extension to the airport.
This exhibition is in part protest, in part tribute, and in part, historical documentation. The work offers an effort and a promise toward acknowledging the cultural and historical significance of Washington Park Cemetery, and toward honoring the people touched by decades of oversight, neglect, and disruption.
This site is a digital companion to an in-person exhibit that appeared in the Main Lobby and Gingko Room from October 2013 to March 2014. The items in this exhibit are from the Mary Wickes Papers and other collections housed in the University Archives collection. Our archive is comprised from more than 300 unique collections, chronicling the history of Saint Louis. Please visit our website to learn more about our collection. Please go to the introduction to start exploring this exhibit.
Expressionism was a radical departure from European artistic standards. The artists didn’t strive for realism, but rather a more expressive and subjective treatment of their surroundings. Through their brash use of color, gesture, and form, they conveyed an emotional understanding of their subject matter. With this strong focus on emotion, came a more individualized approach to making art. In Ernst Ludwig Kirchner’s painting View from the Window, 1914, Emil Nolde’s lithograph A Church by a Harbor, 1907, and Ludwig Meidner’s two-sided painting Burning City, 1913, this individuality can be seen in their distinctive treatment of their urban environments. All three artists held a similar distaste for their surroundings. This was a motivating factor behind each of the works at hand. With their like subject matter, the different ways in which these three approach their work becomes especially apparent. The aggressive distortion present in each cityscape was a means for the artist to channel past experiences and portray their unique mental state.
In seeing how these works represent the artists as individuals, it is also necessary understand to how they fit into the larger context of German Expressionism. These artists were all working at a similar time and often in close proximity. Nolde and Kirchner were both affiliated with The Bridge, a group of German artists active from 1905 to 1913. The stylistic tendencies of the group were similar to that of the Fauves with a use of pure color and a break from illusionistic tendencies. They shared a strong collaborative spirit, even living together and shared studio space.
Nolde was only a member of the group for a brief period of time. Being much older, he found himself unsuited for the artists’ colony and left in 1907, only a year after he had joined. Despite his short stay, it did have a large influence on his work. It made him work to create a more individualized style, with bold color and an expressive treatment of form. This influence can be seen in A Church by a Harbor, 1907, a work he made during this short period. Its distinct use of gesture and expressive use of the lithographic medium are likely resultant of his collaboration with the members of The Bridge.
Six years later, in 1913, The Bridge disbanded and Kirchner painted View from the Window. In the wake of this he searched to create a more individualized style. Unlike Nolde who was responding to the aesthetic of the group, Kirchner was attempting to distance himself from it. He balanced a number of outside influences, like his interest in German artistic tradition, with a need for self-expression. In View from the Window this can be seen in his distinct treatment of space and line. He was shifting his focus to a more modern subject matter, the city, and creating a style to match.
In contrast Meidner stayed largely independent, not joining artist groups like The Bridge or The Blue Rider. Although their influence can be seen in his work, his visual and conceptual framework was based more on introspection. This separation has a clear presence in the three works shown. Burning City seems to stand in opposition to the other works because of its violent energy. While Kirchner and Nolde were painting their surroundings, Meidner creates a totally imagined scene. This painting can be seen as precursor to the second wave of Expressionism, where artists turned away from an individual retreat to something more didactic and relevant to the real world. The scene of destruction Meidner creates has a strong moralizing tone, with a message in direct response to urbanity.
Within German Expressionism these works represent a range of circumstances: Nolde’s time with The Bridge, Kirchner’s newfound independence, and Meidner’s total autonomy. Understanding these circumstances is important in examining their representation of the city, but moving past this historical lens is also necessary. For each artist his treatment of the city was a projection of self. These works represent each artist more as an individual than they do the collective whole of German Expressionism.
A digital version of an exhibition catalog of other writings by James Merrill in the Special Collections of Washington University, 2001. Text editor: John Hodge. Design and production: Sarah Phares. Production assistance: Whitney Preslar. Web adaptation: Alison Carrick and Jason Stumpf. Essays by members and students of the English Department of Washington University.
Digital exhibit updated in 2014 by Shannon Davis, Joel Minor, Thomas Moore and Teresa Yarber.
On October 22-23, 2015, Washington University hosted the James Merrill Symposium in the Women's Building and Olin Library. See our YouTube channel for videos of all the sessions, and our Open Scholarship site for further information.
The symposium included an exhibition titled "James Merrill: Life and Archive," in the Olin Library's Ginkgo Room and Grand Staircase Foyer. The exhibition was designed to showcase the James Merrill Papers and the key role they played in the research and writing of Langdon Hammer's biography, James Merrill: Life and Art, published earlier that year.
This digital exhibit includes everything in the physical exhibition as well as additional items, and has references to where in the biography each item is mentioned or referenced. It is hoped the digital exhibit can serve both as a supplement to the biography as well as an introduction in its own right to James Merrill's life and art through his archive at Washington University.
This site provides an introduction and background to selected poems of James Merrill. It features important poems that also have interesting manuscripts, and includes journals and editorial notes. The sections of this site are linked to the paths indicated in the left margin.
Anyone who wishes to use an item from this site, in whole or in part, in any form of publication should consult the Manuscript Special Collections page at Washington University Libraries. Permission to quote from Merrill's work should be made utilizing The Wylie Agency Permissions Website. Requesters must also submit a completed and signed Request to Quote from or Otherwise Publish the James Merrill Papers form to the Washington University Department of Special Collections. Any publication beyond the provisions of the fair use doctrine is restricted to those who have obtained permission of The Literary Estate of James Merrill at Washington University. If you find any text or image on this site used in violation of copyright, please notify Timothy Materer.
For a website devoted to the manuscripts of Merrill's Ouija transcripts for "The Book of Ephraim," see Washington University Libraries (Special Collections): James Merrill Digital Archive.
With strong spiritual beliefs at a time of Christian division caused by the Protestant Reformation, Joris Hoefnagel’s illustrations of flora and fauna – especially within his Four Elements – bring nature to the forefront, creating equations between nature and naturalistic study, as well as asking the viewer to question the difference between the human and the natural world (note 1). Every watercolor attempts to close the gap between human and wildlife, and makes each specimen appear spectacular and marvelous; true wonders formed by the tip of Hoefnagel’s brush.
Four Elements was created towards the end of the 16th century; a time where to be considered ‘educated’, one had to be well versed in nature, philosophy, literature, and antiquity. There was no gap between a humanistic and an artistic education. The time also saw the exploration of new lands, which created a constant stream of new information, goods, and services between the new world and Europe. And finally the Protestant Reformation, which began in 1517, heightened religious tension and strengthened many individual’s spiritual views.
Joris Hoefnagel himself was born in 1542 to a father who was a wealthy merchant in Antwerp. Projected to follow in his father’s career footsteps, Joris was schooled in ‘studio humaniora’, which included poetry, drawing, music, and languages. After receiving education from both the Universities of Bourges and Orleans, he traveled a good deal. Most notably, he was in Antwerp for the 1576 sack of the city by Spanish soldiers, which prompted him to move to Venice. In 1577 he took a trip with cosmographer and friend Abraham Ortelius, which ended with Hoefnagel taking a court position with Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria. Hoefnagel worked here until it was required that every court employee sign a Counter-Reformation Credo, to which he didn’t agree and therefore was dismissed in 1591. Following, he worked under Emperor Rudolf II, during which time he illuminated a manuscript by Bocskay, before moving to Frankfurt and then Vienna, where he drew for his Four Elements. His religious experiences, travels, and court circles enabled him to become a highly skilled and well-known artist, specializing in manuscript illuminations and small-form cabinet miniatures, at the head of the still-life tradition (note 2).
Confined to a gold-lined oval on parchment, each specimen within Four Elements is illustrated in a meticulously precise manner as Hoefnagel takes his time to understand the form and occasionally the environment within which the insect or animal lives. Dragonflies perch on a bare page, casting shadows that create a trompe l’eoil effect, while turtles bask in the sun as they rest on sandy shores. The weaving of both an artistic and naturalist approach argues towards Hoefnagel’s expansive knowledge, gained both by directly observing these species as well as exposure via descriptive texts and prints that were being circulated throughout Europe at that time.
This exhibition will explore Hoefnagel’s images as objects of visual pleasure, specificity, accuracy, and as a way to organize information. It will explain how Hoefnagel combines these ideas and creates an ambitious catalogue of animal and insect studies, embodied by Four Elements, as well as how he intermingled art, science, nature, and humanity within each of his watercolors. Hoefnagel blurred the line between the different purposes of images, leaving the reader questioning the difference between themself and the environment. He intertwines the human story with the natural world, and collapses each by constructing parallels within his works.
note 1. Note that the words “naturalistic study” are used rather than what would traditionally be stated as “science”. This is because what we perceive to be science is so advanced compared to that time – keep in mind that the microscope was invented and used beginning at the end of the 16th century; around the same time that Four Elements was created. From here on, this online exhibit may use “science” and “naturalistic study” interchangeably with the aforementioned understanding. To learn more about how the microscope impacted naturalistic understanding and classification of the time, please reference James Elkins “On Visual Desperation and the Bodies of Protozoa," Representations, No. 40, Special Issue: Seeing Science (Autumn, 1992), pp. 33-56.
note 2 For more complete information about Hoefnagel’s travels, please reference Thea Vignau-Wilberg, “Joris and Jacob Hoefnagel," Archetypa Studiaque Patris Georgi I Hoefnagel II (1592), pp 17-28 or Hendrix, Lee and Thea Vignau-Wilberg “Joris Hoefnagel, the Illuminator," Mira Calligraphiae Monumenta (1992), pp 15-28.